Posts Tagged oladokun sulaiman
Walking Back to Nature- Inland Water Transportaton – Solution to Modern Day Transportation by Oladokun Sulaiman – Oladok12@yahoo.com
Inland Waterway Hybrid Sustainable Transportation – A solution to Modern Day Transportation Problem
In today’s transportation congestion and air pollution problem on shore infrastructure is causing more moderate concern and increasingly damaging growth in the size of the problem cal for need for formulation of policy for air- road to sea integration. By placing focus on waterborne transport, and integrating to road and air issue place a higher demand multimodal transport which in turn give leverage for need to put focus on a number of shortcomings related to the use of ships for community and freight transport in conjunction with other mode of transportation. To aid the implementation of policy for the use of inland water transportation, high number of community research and technical development actions, relevant to waterborne transport is require. Some of which could include concerted action on short sea shipping, designed to identify some of the structural or generic problems in the use of ships for relatively short-haul transport and other that target environmental impacts as well as issue of safe and efficient increase of reliability intermodal transportation. Furthermore, hybrid use of transportation will require the intelligent transportation system that incorporates use of advanced Integrated Ship Control Systems, AIS and extensive use of information technology needed to provide a solution to modern transportation problem.
Inland water transportation either in moving people and freight in a sustainable manner is increasingly becoming important, will be one of the biggest challenges for the 21st Century, an age where environmental pressure is calling for sensitive reactions, adoption of new proactive innovative behavior to relate factors associated with design, construction and operations and utilize them to deal with inherent needs response. Action associated with human life mitigation has always been part of concern of decision making, but to a less extent. In a world where warning of nature regarding need of awareness and sensitivity as well facts to how substantial nature is to the support of life and how much damage reckless human activities has cause imbalance in our planet. A situation that is vividly threatening our plant today and striping hope for our future generation survival in this planet, A situation that is equally calling for all of us to adopt new philosophy of doing things, and giving insight in inevitable return to nature earlier ways of doing things – from use of sun, water and clean energy store in earth crust to use of inland water transportation. Past engineer work on inland have been dominated with reactive, and today s world has reach a toll where by there is no chance to wait for accidents whose consequence is environmental degradation at its point form or instantaneous calamity. .
There is a surmountable barrier to achieving a sustainable multimodal inland water transportation where environmental impacts and risk will be mitigated and integrative components of water recourses will be utilized. However, incorporating holistic systems framework and system engineering tools back with analysis and identification leading to alternative path to short and long term solutions to the problem can facilitate achieving quality management of the evolving new philosophy of sustainability . Such alternative solutions after discounting environmental concern could accommodate increasing inland waterway integration for shipping cargo containers including lock development, intermodal, information technology solution, provision of incentives to alleviate congestion during seasonal congestion hybrid of transportation mode based on best option selection . Sustainable Inland water system contains physical elements that include waterways, ports, and intermodal network of railroads, roadways, and pipelines, that connect the waterborne portions of the system as required. The physical elements also include the vessels and vehicles that move goods and people within the system. The physical network is supported by a series of systems that facilitate the movement of goods and people, and provide access for recreation and to natural resources. Also associated with development of inland water transportation is dredging work to meet size of vessels, maintenance dredging and containment technologies for dredge material disposal or reuse of dredged material may be a feasible alternative that provides an economic benefit.
2.0 Inland Water Transportation System (IWTS)
Civilization has ground up along rivers, lakes, ocean, the great rivers of the world, like Amazon, Mississippi, Ganges Rhine Danube Niger, and Nile influences the lives of millions, not only their very existence but also their political, art, and science. People are inherently drawn to water, this make use of water resources an important part of human development. Properly managed river basin can augment food water supplies, improve transportation, provide energy and develop industry. Development of water resources also carry the good beneficial reward to reciprocal development of waterfront areas that provide multiuse activities; improve social interaction and a sense of community. Hybrid concept requires facilities to be strategically placed in close proximity to other modal transportation system. The design need to pay attention to historic, current and future development patterns.
Inland navigation offers important opportunities to move cargos on river, estuarine and associated tributary in an energy-efficient manner, reduced cost of good transportation per tone – kilometer compare to other mode of transportation in. It remain one of the best option available to mitigating problem associated with global warming, climate change, noise pollution as well as congestion. Capacity building, environmentally and socially friendly, taking advantage of nonstructural measures (such as fleet innovation)  as well as infrastructure investments, and multimodal corridor incorporation become increasingly a matter of dire need today .
Inland water transportation has substantially shaped the growth and development of nations in Europe and North America, however, previous work on transportation are much more based on proactive method, Recent study made by European Union indicated potential for augmentation of percentage of shipping in total transport volume in the Danube region, this lead to agreement for inland navigation improvement in an integrated manner by the ten Danube riparian states there is indication that climate change will have will bring potential development of on the further development of IWT and this make navigation management, planning and development of IWT to take the issue of climate change and ozone depletion into account.
The important of transportation and utilizing full advantage of new and emerging transportation technologies remain engine of tomorrow’s growth and prosperities as well as supports for safety, security, conservation of energy and environmental quality. Since, Inland transportation cannot stand alone and its efficiency, strength can only be maximized through integrative intermodalism and diversity, this provide opportunity for cooperative climate for intermodal systems, cooperative climate requires the coordination of more than one mode of transportation. With each mode having its own system-specific advantages: motor carriers have the ability to provide door-to-door service; water carriers that can handle bulk commodities safely at very low cost; and rails that can transport a broad range of commodities over long distances. Retaining sustainability principle that public good is best served by the most efficient use of transport resources, regardless of mode, and implementing the new philosophy of its sustainability equally requires `incorporation of use of water resources for other use as required by the environment .
Couple with this, recent issue of today especially from environmental domain called for need to adopt new sustainability philosophy, a healthy and responsive transportation system. And method that can yield vitality and growth, and the productivity of commerce, the nation needs . Focusing on efficiency and complementation rather than competition between different transportation systems is a key economic growth, sustainability and productivity of a nation. Efficient freight transportation systems play a positive role both in the economic life of industrialized countries and the daily lives of their citizens. These countries realize the importance of the relationship between good systems, services and their economy. However, while these transportation systems are essential to a modern society, and there are substantial economic benefits to be realized from them, there are also significant negative environmental impacts, including preemption of land, disruption of topography, use of energy and other resources, and noise and air pollution .
In making choice of transportation modes, consideration should be given to the mode that does not contribute to unnecessary increases in fuel use, exhaust emissions, accidents, spill incidents, and congestion. It seems that not a day goes by without some new evidence of the increasing pollution of our environment and its consequences. There are indications everywhere those environmental rights (breathable air, drinkable water, fertile soil), which have been regarded as inexhaustible or renewable, are becoming scarce .
Today, with much more environmental awareness and a greater understanding of the consequences of pollution, both government and society are much less tolerant of pollution. On a global scale, pollution is a growing threat to both human health and the environment. Commercial freight transportation, with its almost total dependence on petroleum-based fuels, contributes significantly to pollution levels. Therefore, each form of transportation, as a major energy user, needs to be evaluated both as to the scarceness and future availability of the energy resources that it uses and to its impact on the environment. With each transport mode having its own specific energy-use and environmental characteristics, decisions on transport issues, whether short or long term, have inevitable impacts on the environment, which should be clearly weighed before a final decision is made.
Both the environment and the quality of life are receiving greater attention, resulting in a growing demand for not only an environmentally sound transportation system, but also for policies where environmental goals are given greater weight in transportation decisions. The result of this concern over the impact of transportation systems on the environment is reflected in how those systems are now being planned for the future. Transportation designers and environmentalists, both of whom recognize the interdependence between transportation systems and the environment, are increasingly concerned about maintaining an appropriate balance between the two. Likewise environmental laws are all over at the verge of established a legal framework aimed at keeping transportation decisions consistent with that goal .
3.0 Threat and Challenge of Green House Gas, and Impact on Trio of Global Warming, Ozone Depletion, Impact on Climate Change
Recent time has seen environmental calamity and abnormal environmental behavior which today the consensus of scientist have agreed to be linked to human activities. The world of man is madE up of the biosphere and the techno sphere, human inherited the earlier and it give all support needed for human to live, however, we neglect to know and even take care of it and we created the later whose buy product are claimed to be responsible for effect of ozone depletion that limit sunlight reaching our planet and consequentially warm up our planet and cause other chain reaction that leads to environmental revolt.
The impact on coastal resources can be classified into four broad categories. The first is tidal inundation, where about 1200 km2 in Peninsular Malaysia alone will be submerged subsequent to bund failure, and mangroves will be lost if sea level rises at a rate of 0.9 cm/year. The second is shoreline erosion, which will account for another few hundred metres of shoreline retreat. The third is increased wave action, which can affect the structural integrity of coastal facilities and installations such as power plants. The last is saline intrusion, which can pose a potential threat of water contamination at water abstraction points. Examples of other impacts include submergence of corals, coral bleaching due to increasing levels of CO2 in the water, and depletion of fisheries resources due to loss of mangrove habitats.
Water management follows three stages:
1-unregulated river water become supply – oriented , it remain so as long as water is abundant and the demand can be satisfied without modifying hydrological regime.
2-Scarcity of water-with increase pressure of demand for water and water related services, water management become resources oriented and the basis for multipurpose development.
3-Regulated natural regime-as Limit of acceptable stream flow regulation and development are reached, marginal cost of water supply radically increases, and here development management becomes important .
The first case apply to Terengganu, the first case apply, and significant, sustainable balancing of economic, environmental development, community involvement maximize benefits of the planning and implementation strategy that could result to dramatically improved public access, provision of new open spaces, improved quality of life, strengthened city and image and community pride.
5.0 Environmental Risk of IWTS
The environmental impacts of water transportation vary from river to river and project to project, but in many cases, the environment is not noticeably affected by waterway freight transport. Where it does have a negative impact, the effect is usually minimal. Because of the concern over the impacts that the different transportation modes have on the environment, there has been a more concerted effort to identify those impacts. Recent time have studies that are similar in nature analyzed the types and levels of impacts of a modal shift on the environment; viz. what happens if cargo movements are shifted from one mode to another. What would be the increases in fuel usage, Issues related exhaust emissions, probable accidents, traffic congestion, etc. All three studies compared the same cargoes shipped by different modes, and concluded that, ton for ton, produce vessels have fewer accidents, consume less energy, fewer harmful emissions, society in general and are less disruptive. These studies findings show that transporting of bulk commodities by water are environmentally compatible, provides a means to sustainable development, and that the use of this environmentally-friendly mode should be encouraged. .
Wide variety of human activities can affect the coastal and marine environment. Population pressure, increasing demands for space, competition over resources, and poor economic performances can all undermine the sustainable use of our oceans and coastal areas. The most serious problems affecting the quality and use of these ecosystems surrounding coastal water encompass release to:
1. Water – pollution release directly or washed downed through ground water
2. Air- air pollution, noise population, vibration
3. Soil- dredge disposal and contaminated sediments
4. Flood risk – biochemical reaction of pollution elements with water.
5. Collision – operational
6. Biodiversification – endangered and threatened species, habitat
Risk management should involve alternative risk reduction measures and the implementation of those that appear cost effective .where Zero discharge = zero risk, but the challenge is to bring the risk to be at acceptable level and at the same time, derive the max Benefit. Simulate extreme condition and model – using combination mathematical modeling and stochastic techniques while considering all factors in holistic manner.
Uncertainty is part of risk, but it’s and abstract nature and limitation of knowledge of unseen in real world settings make it s quantification a complex work. associated with uncertainty are normally reflect issue of influences on recovery process, Test of new advancements, Influence on policy, Address system changes over time, services & resources. The “sources” of a “lack of certainty” can be several. Moreover, the methods of measurement may be uncertain, or the models used inaccurate. Furthermore, uncertainty can arise from profound misunderstandings of the phenomena that are observed or are attempted to be assessed, perhaps because there is no adequate theoretical knowledge yet.
6.0 Environmental Benefits of IWTS
The commodities on which our lives and livelihood depend have to be transported by one mode or another however; the aadvantage of using Inland water transportation system over other mode of transportation has been described by various comparative studies. Advantage range from issues of concerned in of human modern world. As highlighted above there are inherent risks in shipping by barge, but yet statistics, water transport is the safest and most regulated form of transportation and has fewer accidental spills or collisions than any other mode. This excellent record is directly attributable to both exacting operational safeguards imposed by the carriers themselves as well as strict federally-mandated inspection standards. There is little public awareness of the water transport industry outside the river communities that it serves. This can be attributed primarily to the non-intrusive nature of the industry’s operations and its impressive safety record. One of the primary reasons for this lack of intrusiveness is the width of most of the rivers, their location in relation to population centers, as well as levees and floodwalls.
According to the United Nations, human benefit from marine and coastal ecosystem and activities: Coastal tourism =161 billion American dollars, Trade and shipping =155 billion American dollars, Offshore oil and gas = 132 billion American dollars, Fisheries = 80 billion American dollars. Therefore, it is important to be careful and maintain balance in dealing our activities. The popular media attention is concentrated on loss of life and property. There is little prospect for preventing many of the disasters from occurring although much could be done to reduce their severity. Many impacts could be mitigated through better vulnerability and risk assessment, predictive modeling, information dissemination, and policy development .
6.1 Energy efficiency - The use of energy by the different modes of freight transportation has become of increasing concern in setting transportation policy. Energy efficiency is the measure of performance of our system is it structure or mobile Energy efficiency is usually measured in one of two ways: by comparing how many miles each mode of transportation can carry a ton of freight per gallon of fuel, or by how many BTUs are expended per ton mile. In considering the choice of alternative transportation modes, it is imperative to consider energy that will be spent in shifting from one mode to another will result in greater energy consumption by the less fuel-efficient mode. For cargo carriage, vessels is required to move one ton of cargo none mile, with energy efficiency which is the inverse of energy intensiveness Propulsion energy including refinery losses. -Combines operating energy with maintenance energy, vehicle manufacturing energy, and construction energy..
Table 2.3- Energy modal comparison – Source: 
Table 3 – Modal energy comparison
LNE – haule Energy
Numerous studies of fuel efficiency have been done shows that shallow-draft water transportation is the most fuel efficient mode of transportation for moving bulkraw materials, is the least energy intensive method of freight transportation when moving equivalent amounts of cargo, and consumes less energy than alternative modes. .
6.2 Safety – Since the consequence of not being safe is environmental catastrophic, modal comparison of transportation system has revealed that water transport has the fewest numbers of incidents, fatalities, and injuries compare to other surface mode. The inland water transportation environment, with its slow transit speeds, is relatively mild, and shock and vibration levels, which are dampened out by the cushioning effect of the waterway itself, are not normally considered a problem. Land based including road and rail cars are susceptible to accidents, often times resulting in a loss of cargo, especially rail transportation are more vulnerable because shipments typically involving a large number of massive units traveling at high speed in a single line. River barges with navigation aid infrastructure ensure right-of-way mostly with pleasure craft that operate primarily both in warmer weather and during daylight hours an intermodal comparison work recently conducted by waterway foundation
6.3 Congestion – Pressure relating to technological; change needs and population has led to high demand for road transportation vehicle that has led to un convenient congestion problems and cones, traffic growth in most city of the world is currently outstripped any increase in increase of green house gas release increase, currently hurting our planet. There is currently fringing in infrastructure capacity, where traffic demand exceeds supply leading to delays and safety problems.
6.4 Air, noise and vibration pollution – Rise in traffic volumes due to urban population, increase mobility has been identified by recent studies to be main contributors to Noise levels rise and contamination of air quality. Comparative studies has revealed that road transportation is the major offender Road transportation is the major offender more than other mode of transportation. Currently there is limited data exists on noise levels of barge operations, mainly because they are not considered problem. Figure 4 show environmental force driving next generation technology.
Table 4 – Emission comparison
SCR (Selected catalytic reduction)
PMF (Particulate matter filter)
Drive management systems
ATM (Advising tempomaat)
Diesel fuel quality / substitutes
(BD) Bio – Diesel
BDB (Biodiesel blend , 20%BD)
LSF (Low sulfur fuel)
New engine technology
NGE(Natural Gas Engine)
6.5 Social impacts – Trucks and trains operate much closer to populated areas and release large amount of pollution and noise to the residence, barges quietly make their way along isolated waterways for most of their trip. By contrast, river barges have little impact on densely-populated areas. Barge transits are relatively infrequent because of the large tonnage moved at one time. River operations take place in channels away from the shore, and the engines of a towboat are usually below the water line, which muffles the sound. Surface traffic, both road and rail, near residential neighborhoods contributes to visual, physical, and psychological barriers that can lead to the fragmentation of those neighborhoods. Reduced social interaction, reduced access to other neighborhoods, and increased traffic congestion Traffic congestion can lead to serious disruptions of police, fire, and medical services, as well as periodic isolation of parts of communities
6.6 Cargo capacity – In terms of capacity a study done by COB came up with the following conclusion, which gives inland water a good advantage over other mode of transportation.
6.7 Economic of IWTS - The political and economic changes of nation is a big factor that maneuvered and created dynamic emerging economy in and generated needs and perspectives for more trade and transport along the river in Europe and the United States. Such economy analysis and environmental analysis which is being dealt with in this research cold bring assurance to drive the Transport policies that promote modal shift. The making of inland transportation requires economic analyses that identify trade growth consequential rapid rise in the amount of traffic. Commercial transport in Malaysia corridor has soared growing more than 100% in the last decade, with by far the largest increase registered in road transit. It is expected that Malaysia will continue this dynamic economic development in the coming years (with minimum average GDP/capita growth rates of 3-4% per year until 2015) and traffic flows could grow correspondingly .Compare to other mode of transportation, Inland water Transportation is in comparison to air and road transport, seen as more environmentally friendly and energy efficient, and can therefore contribute to sustainable socio-economic development of the region. Multimodal use of available transport possibilities (road, rail and IWT) has to be ensured.
6.8 Regulation requirement - Due to international implication of maritime industry, the required to be implemented are finalized by UN agencies following tacit proceedure, while the state decide on formulating local legislation towards implementation through marine administration and port state contol. Under above described legal framework for guide to drafting legislation, in the context of maritime transportation, 3 main purposes of legislation under legal framework are:
i. To provide legal framework for maritime transportation – effective legal framework is expected to cover all parties involved in maritime transportation
ii. For implementation of basic objectives of states- to prevent coalition, accident and consequence of pollution that may arise from them- legislation involved monitoring that focus on manning, safety, prevention of collision, salvage.
iii. To achievement of certain economic purpose- policy objective under economics from aim to expand national fleet, boosting of employment of national on board foreign ship.
7.0 Technical requirement / Classification of IWTS
River Classification System is n necessary to ensure the orderly and efficient control and maintenance of waterways an inventory of existing infrastructure and transport must be prepared as the base of a sound classification system. This inventory should include numerous quantitative aspects (e.g. minimum depths, width, and vertical clearance of waterways, marking and minimum equipment with navigational aids, and number of vessels), as well as qualitative aspects (e.g. the state of infrastructure and the fleet, transport performance). Data difficulties can be often quite substantial. Each waterway class: I, II, … has its standardized vessel (type, length, beam, draught and carrying capacities to loading draught and minimum height under bridges) or limited standardized integrated barge tow (formation and number of barges in tow, total length of barge tow plus pushboat, total beam of barge tow, draught of most loaded barge in tow and barge tow capacity in loaded state and minimum height under bridges) corresponding to the waterway conditions. Classification adopted by European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT) is shown in the table below .
Table5- IWTS classification – Source: 
ECMT classification (maximum vessel dimensions in metres)
7.1 IWTS Vessels Requirements
The Ship is about port and access to port by optimum size of ships and its associated economics implication can be made available through navigable channel where maintenance dredging is needed. Ship production and condition of channel are out of phase. Economic of large scale and demand has begot big ship to emerge within a short period of time after second world war- however less attention has been given to the channels that will continue to accommodate these ships. Large ships typically maneuver with difficulty in confined areas, and channel width is a critical component of deep-draft channels .The requirements for access and protection in harbors and ports often lead to maintenance of channels and engineered structures, such as jetties and breakwaters.
Ship characteristics – Thus as ships are getting bigger, there has been signify technological change link to safe maneuvering and controllability. In reference To this design has focused on mitigating issues like large windage associated with container ships, which can complicate ship controllability in narrow channels as well as during slow speed maneuvering; also Limiting speed in channel remain a critical part of operational maintenance work Direct-technological ship with drive diesel ships with high installed power to achieve design service speeds can, in some cases, have a minimum bare steerage speed of about 8 knots —quite a high speed in confined waters, has remain a challenge for terminal operators .
Maneuverability of during ship designs focus more on optimum operation of ships in the Open Ocean, and pay les attention to operations in confined areas. Ship Control is important when ships slow to turn, docks, or attached to tugs. Factors contributing to loss of control include slow vessel speed, following currents, waves, and cross-wind. Sailboats traveling under sail require extra maneuvering space. A good navigation channel must accommodate the ships using it. Ships are controlled by propellers and rudders at the stern. Some ships are also equipped with bow thrusters or bow and stern thrusters, which aid in control, especially at low speeds. Often, one or more tugs are needed to assist ships in some phases of entering and leaving a port.
Vessel operations during navigation channel deepening are required to enhance safety, efficiency, and productivity of waterborne commerce in ports and harbors. Shallow-draft projects embody similar concerns and often public recreational access as well. The following as related to Vessel operability is important in channel maintenance work:
Navigation system- this include the following port harbor operations:
i. Waterway engineering: Navigation channels, environmental factors, dredging and mapping services, shore docking facilities.
ii. Marine traffic: Operational rules, aids to navigation, pilot and tug service, communications, and vessel traffic services.
iii. Vessel hydrodynamics: Vessel design, maneuverability and controllability, human factors, navigation equipment.
7.2 Inland waterway channels requirement – Waterway channel involve the sizing of vessels that will transit a waterway, Maintenance dredging Capacity - sediments output and estimates with clear objective to reduce channel delay accepts big ships; need to be done in environmental sustainable manner and optimal efficiency (economically). Quantification of channel require quantifying depth that pave wave for dredging requirement to be determined and this lead to optimal choice of dredger .generic analysis of navigation and environmental and sediment , with Iterative process and allowance discounting discussed under the case studies in taking account of impacts to channel during operations and during construction.
Navigation, coastal and geotechnical engineers have a very pronounced problem in regards to this – past design in human activities has been based on aftermath assessment of calamity where engineers have dealt with the high level of uncertainty by conservatively assigning or specifying much larger capacities than the projected demand. This ratio of capacity to predicted demand is the classical safety factor approach, which requires significant experience levels to be done right.Complementing, sustainable maintenance balancing wok is also Aids to Navigation / Navigation Information. Channel dimensioning requires channel depth and width characteristics:
i. Channel Depth Characteristics – Channel deepening is considered more important by channel designers, economists and mariners alike.
ii. Channel Width Characteristics – The main characteristics of a channel width may be grouped into the following general categories:
a. Channel Layout (i.e., plan view path characteristics such as straight and curved sections)
b. Channel Cross-Section (hydrodynamic characteristics such as depth, width, and side-slopes) many factors feed into the determination of the dimensions and specifications of channel characteristics
The quality of aids to navigation, type of channel cross section, and current strength impact the required width, experience with ship simulator studies has indicated that traditional channel width design criteria are overly conservative. Navigation is more difficult when channel cross section (overbank depths, channel depth and width) varies significantly. Bank effects and currents become less predictable and extra care is needed for vessel control. Traditional guidance for channel width is the same as for deep-draft channels.
7.3 Environmental sustainability and IWTS – Sustainability under UN definition emphasize on 4 tier balancing environment, economics, social and development issue that occupied man, the environment he inherited his survival, and reliability on continuity of the planet for the right of future generation. maritime industry need to adjust to the ways we do things in a world of sensitivity being characterized by sustainability, capacity building, efficiency, optimization of development, practice and operations that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their need. Environmental sustainability – “environmental issues” under what surround us, As well as difficulties associated with changes to the bathymetry due to dredging or as a resulted in changes in water currents or other oceanographic effects or as result of sediment transport and need maintain n them ,sustain our living and existence and purpose associated with them. Require historical as well as recent and predictive datasets system and “Now casts” and predictions of these parameters with the use of numerical calculation models that can provides real-time information about water levels, currents, and other oceanographic and meteorological data from bays and harbors, are available.
7.4 Transportation Hybrid Process Requirement – Making Transportation Smarter – Hybridizing transportation system will involve:
Development of a conceptual standard for Ship Control Centre (SCC) Design-
Development of Advanced Information Processing that will enhance efficiency, and safety including human performance by integration of information and improvement of decision support methods.
Verification of Conceptual Standard for SCC and risk of solution accountability for Design vs, Efficiency and Safety in combination with increased user satisfaction. Safety assessment, the risk of a collision, supports interoperability and interconnectivity.
Conceptual Standard for ISC Systems including use of components for a future standard on ISC systems, including guidelines for the preparation of companion standards and conformance classes.
Harmonized Human-Machine Interface (HMI), towards contribution to the safety and efficiency improvements measured in the project.
Standardized Process Network including use of tools required for network performance prediction, reliability as expressed
Summing it up, building hybrid integrative transportation system that combines land road-water resources is indeed a challenge. To achieve success in such transportation artifact, providing the value and benefits require setting of high goal objectives that can be achieved within designated time, cost benefit should be clearly defined and performance problems and lifecycle issues should be well addressed, risk mitigated. Information transparency and information sharing through dissemination forum should be planned. The fact that environmental issue is of global warming, climate change and ozone depleting is driving today technology touché inland water transportation system were discussed. Need to adopt new transportation strategy warranted and incorporating old transportation system with sustainable Inland Water Transportation that mitigate environmental, technical , economic, social, safety , ecological requirement under integrative integrated transportation system will provide reliable Inland Water Transportation System aggressively growing state should adopt smart multimodal planning for sustainable transportation.
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Tags: air pollution problem, intelligent transportation system, oladokun sulaiman, ship control systems, short sea shipping
Maritime industry is the cradle of all modes of transportation , ports and ships are necessary to facilitate trading through marine transportation, recent time has proved the continuous growth or need for larger and sophisticated ship through increasing shipping activities, demands and this has lead to design and building of sophisticated, state of the art, safety oriented marine vehicles in term of size, speed and structure- albeit, this safety based designed development is out of phase with conditions of navigation channels. To create a balance for safe navigation in restricted water these big ships will ply, channel must be maintain at a frequency the ships building are growing.
Maintenance dredging is the activity that involve periodic removal of material which has been deposited in an area where capital dredging has been undertaken, The frequency of maintenance dredging varies from port to port, however, the objective remain to allow ships to enter and leave port at stated draft without delay and ensure efficiency of maintenance dredging, steps must be taken during the process to minimize siltation and shoaling in channel.
This project addresses the navigation aspect of channel maintenance using a “pressure–state–response” approach. “Pressure” is the demand placed upon the marine environment and its resources by human Activities. “State” describes the current conditions resulting from these pressures. “Response” is what is being done to address the pressures and finally evaluating these states and come up with what need to be done in a sustainable manner.
Every human activity on earth is about need and response, of course mitigation. I issue relating to channel and ships are not left behind in this. The Ship is about port, access to port by optimum size ships can be made available through navigable channel where maintenance dredging is needed. Economics of scale and demand has begot big ship to emerge within a short period of time after second world war- however less attention has been given to the channel that will continue to accommodate these ships.
1.1.1 Shipping trend
Ships and shipping remains a very important instrument for mobility. If ships could no longer transit waterways, there will shortages of power, heat and food in days or weeks at the outside. Recent years have seen economic of scale due to improved trade, the significance of these trends is that more, larger ships will continue to use waterways for the foreseeable future. But there are limits on size of ship that a channel can accommodate, Therefore a means of determining special measures must be imposed on handling ships in order to ensure the continued safe, efficient, and environmentally friendly use of our channel.
This make it incumbent for authorities concerned regarding waterways to evaluate and address the risks associated with ships that are plying them and find way and information sharing avenue for channel designers, naval architects, ship masters and pilots, and waterway managers that will help develop policy, recommendations that will address the way channels are maintain, enlarged and how ships of various types using them should be designed and handled. And of course, ways to monitor existing and new ships operating at channel approach in order to guide ship designers to understand, review ships, pilotage, channel, current design and operational practices on how to incorporate needed improvements.
Under sustainability, environmental issues are an important part of today’s operation, and management linked to governmental level policy work. Since, the Rio declaration, the themes aspects regulation and management of “environment” have been increasing and changing. Public awareness about the environmental consequences of several types of activities (e.g. the waste and emissions from in industrial processes, ships, and their direct and indirect discharge (through river runoff) to the ocean impacts of infrastructure building, etc) has increased.
Associated with environmental examination is problems of uncertain issue, aggregating through its characterizes point form degradation, high risk, disputed values, and short time line for decision , and this has called for dire need of , philosophy and new science to design, maintain and prevent alarming system failure, One example is the Post-Normal Science (PNS) where diligent care is recommended to acknowledge, communicate, and manage uncertainties under holistic consideration including value commitment and community participation in the assessment work.
This project presents the case of a comprehensive simple models to balance sustainability relating to economic maintenance of port access for safe navigation of vessels (bigger ships) in restricted water while sustaining other purpose of water resources through assessment and evaluation, central discussion will focus on aim to improve on existing practice, entity of things that are being consider in ports that are innovative will be captured in a way that can affords ready access and promotes technology transfer. The sustainability elements of the Project are a green port initiative, whose outcome hope to give insight in developing Environmental Management Handbook for Ports.
1.12 The case study
This thesis presents a case study on Port Tajung Pelapas (PTP), which is considered as one modern port that currently accept big vessel up to 430m as of now, however, having such room can easily put monitoring need for siltation and decision-making process of environmental implications and uncertainty where scientific knowledge is important role in oblivion. Specifically linked to the case, is the case consists in the balancing system leading to decision regarding the application of models for deepening (through dredging) which is very important for the area.
PTP, a subsidiary of Seaport Terminal Sdn. Bhd., modern port given a free zone status in a location know as tip of Asia, where almost all vessels crossing Asia through the straights of Malacca, it was part of Malaysia`s determined program under vision 2020, with projection to have the 800ha port developed to 12 berths by year 2020. It was one of the fast track, mobilized project done under rapid schedule whose after project condition need monitoring to cater for uncertainty that might have mixed with the shortened time of the project. Thus the project execution programme contained numerous intermediate milestones or partial completion dates, which has allowed close monitoring and adherence of progress, minimizing delays and financial risks with substantial increase in production capacity for site clearing, dredging, and reclamation and soil improvement which turned the river and mangrove area at its peak in 1998 into one of the world’s most equipment, intensive dredging projects, with some 12 large dredging vessels being employed in total (Allard Renkema and David Kinlan,2000).
In less than five years the area stretching from the state capital Johor towards the west along the Johor Straits, has rapidly changed from a quiet oil palm plantation area into a totally new area to develop with excellent infrastructure, housing facilities and new areas for industrial development. Major infrastructure projects such as the Second Crossing, Johor Airport and the new port development at PTP at the east bank of the Sungai Pulai, form the cornerstone of the Johor growth triangle west of the city. A study made by Johor port authority in 1990 about anticipation of congestion over the Johor port that has been existing since 1977, gave birth to site selection for PTP as the most suitable location for Johor’s new port.
The main reason for choosing examples of maintenance of PTP channel in the case study is because of the acceleration program practice in PTP may not have enough initial allowance to the channel, in the project as a result of location and there is envisaged expansion in the area there will be potential rise of traffic in that areas and the need for a simple model for the port to monitor the design channel draft, the ships plying it and the rate of siltation, couple with innovative scientific uncertainty analysis is going to be one key thing that will continue to surface in this areas in respect to population and development work in the area. This study will look into the simplified balancing system for between channel and vessels leading to sizing and soil removal decision, issue of sustainability, risk and uncertainty assessment will be discussed as related to channel maintenance in a broader scientific context, holistic risk and goal based assessment will be suggested for further studies.
Uncertainty as the name imply, is very complicated and scientific solution is not enough to cover insurance related to issues like consequence of dredging of polluted sediments on environment or human health, and even suggested mitigation. In the past convention, methodology rarely consider issue of uncertainty, age of awareness has called for new philosophy to avert future accumulated problem that could result from point form environmental degradation due to oversight or negligence of small issues attached to uncertainty. Dredging work around the world is associated with conflict especially on issue of dredged material disposal, this area will be deeply looked into sustainable ways and method of disposal, that satisfied all concern under this case study and of course the various stakeholders whose interests and values always influence decision relating to this issue.
In summary, the key element in the discussion to be presented in the following chapters is the daily practice of monitoring and maintaining post dredged channel, decision-making on environmental issues, where a number of difficulties arise. Uncertainty, risk and policies issue is some of these difficulties and this will be discussed. The main research question of this master thesis can be asked through the following question: In the context of local navigation aspect of channel maintenance, what is a user friendly model that can be use to generate necessary clearance and siltation condition of the channel, In term of sustainability, risk, uncertainty, which role does science take in the practice of decision making on environmental issues and its relative implication, And in broader context, what are the suggestions, quest and research work to deal with this for necessary zero tolerance.
One of the main purposes of this study is to discuss the relevance of the theoretical developments on sustainable management of navigation channel and managing sustainability associated with the work. The cases chosen PTP as exploratory cases for the study of the role of channel usage, maintenance needed, risk, uncertainty and the daily practice of environmental management by authorities. The study takes into consideration retroactive analysis on the role of maintenance and sustainability, risk and uncertainty in the process, as perceived by the parties involved and from an external analysis. It should be mentioned that since PTP was built, channel deepening work was performed only one
In the case studies presented here, the data’s, the documents, interviews, and the discussion around the maintenance process, are analyzed. The longer title of the project (Maintenance and Management of Complex Channel work, Sustainability through Scientific, Risk, uncertainty, Community Participation and Environmental Governance) provides a clue to the approaches and the main concepts, and the interests at the core of the channel maintenance project.
The cases discussed in this study are interesting for three reasons. First, because navigation channels maintenance work are very complex, second the concept of sustainable balancing of issues relating to economic and demand, environment and social, technical safety are recognized for most of the actors that involved in the process to be a key element for the development of the decision, making process in channel maintenance as they imply to actors. Third, risk, and uncertainty was present in the discussion as a key issue that need to be take seriously, The research was done through data collection and a dialogue with the people involved. Specifically, the main objectives of the project can be phrased as follows:
To identify and evaluate, compare current tradition, changes and need for maintenance of navigable channel
To test model towards an alternative simplified method that can help improve ways to maintain the channel.
To apply principle of sustainability associated to balancing work between demand, cost and environment as related to channel maintenance work.
To discuss concept of new technological innovation, holistic risk and cost benefit assessment scientific, uncertainty and policy analysis (based on limitations of the existing methods) including need for improving the public decisions on environmental issues when there are scientific uncertainties.
To generate recommendation that can help to develop and improve the channel maintenance strategies and manage the design change based on sustainability best practice regarding the maintenance of channel needed for PTP and role of risk assessment, scientific knowledge and uncertainty in the development of these particular cases.
1.3 Scope of work
Project will go through collection of projects from the ports, to develop a list of issues and recommend criteria by which best decision relating to complex issue of navigation project can be made through providing answer to question relating to what is needed to put the channel in the right condition from:
Maintenance – Fairway, economic analysis and demand
Maintenance -Navigation requirement and dimensioning, vessels and channel
Maintenance -Hydrographic work, sediment studies and volume calculation
Maintenance – Yearly Output calculation, dredger output and Selection
Sustainability – social- economic, health and ecological consideration best technology to use and when the best time to dredge are:
Sustainability -Beneficial disposal of sediment and mitigation for environmental impact.
Sustainability-How can the channel be continuously managed and monitored from trend studies
Sustainability – Concept discussion on issue of uncertainty, risk- cost-benefit- assessment, science, uncertainty and regulation regime
1.3.1 Data source
Data source will be from the case study area, and this will include vessel and channel related as well as sediment, the environment, others will be generated as required.
1.3.2 Work area
PTP is being considered, this model can be applied to other areas in Malaysia that seriously troubled by issue of channel maintenance.
1.4 Planning and execution
Figure 1.1 and 1.2 are the flowchart for method and the time schedule for the Project.
Dredging method /Dredger Vessel Selection
Figure 1.1 Project flowchart
1.5 Thesis Layout
The chapters of the thesis are organized as follows: Chapter 1 having introduced the context of interrelation between ship and port local and need to balance this relation, environmental sustainability and uncertainty, chapter 2 presents general literature work on the broader issue of harbor maintenance, associated models and marine pollution, as well as the main potential environmental impacts of channel maintenance activity. This chapter is intended to provide a platform of knowledge required to understand the case study in the following chapter.
Chapter 3 contains methodology for the case, and chapter 4 contains a detailed description, application of models analysis of the case study, beginning with a description of the methodology used for the elaboration of the studies, the case of the dredging at global level is briefly presented from literature works and introduction as a background element earlier to influence the PTP case considering, dredging, material disposal, and assessing environmental state through sustainability. The chapter also discusses the main actors involved, highlighting their perceptions on sustainability, and an analysis of the technical reports and data that were provided.
In chapter 5, there is a discussion on concept of environment, social, ecological, technical, social, economic, sustainability and the balancing work between developments, human need and response, the implication of uncertainty that can be extracted from the case, relating them to the main theoretical developments presented in the beginning of the literature work. The role and implications of sustainability and sustainability in environmental management are discussed in chapter 6, and the conclusions are summed up in chapter 7.
1.6 Expected result
With overall aim geared towards ensuring that channels are designed and maintained by their custodians and operators in environmentally sustainable manner, the project will help contribute to improvement on safe navigation and environmental protection in the following way:
Environmental and ecological sustainability of commercial channels
Safe and effective transits and access to ports.
Protect the usage rights of maritime commercial shipping in the channel
Economic, social and technological sustainability of commercial waterways
Maintenance dredging with objective to reduce channel delay, accept big ship to be done in environmental sustainable manner and optimal efficiency, in maintenance dredging quantifying the loss of depth pave wave for dredging requirement to be determined and this lead to optimal choice of dredger.
Generic calculation on data results from analysis of:
Vessel and channel requirement,
Basic rate output of the dredger,
Computation of volume
Cycle time and Number of work day per year,
Working condition and
Suggestion for iterative process in analyzing the data’s will involve dealing with uncertainty and managing the risk that will end up:
To get all concerned involve in formulation of new method
To identify the significant, level of each cause, source and impact of the design changes
To help deduce the possible corrective actions and preventive measures to minimise the avoidable design changes
To help Verified the limitations of the existing methods
This project will help improve on condition need relating to:
Port delay, and Accident,
Beneficial Dredge disposal and contaminated seeds,
Endangered and threatened species through bio-diversification,
As result of this there will be increase in: Controllability or scheme monitoring, Efficiency of the system, More revenue money, Time management.
Recommendation on this project could end up to:
Provides tools to facilitate management decisions in allocating resources efficiently and maximizing operational efficiencies.
Improve Operational efficiencies gained reduce maintenance requirements, which in turn reduce workload
Save money and time through process re-engineering that can be used to better serve the port and coastal inhabitant.
BY OLADOKUN SULAIMAN
Tags: art safety, channel maintenance, marine vehicles, oladokun sulaiman, shipping activities
In human civilization to industrial from Stone Age, then computer to information and multimedia innovative technological age, it has just been about building and forgetting things around us including environment. Today human sensitivity is aggressively defining age as an age of sensitivity and for safety and environment. Every thing we have been building for years during transition in those ages have been built with ignorance, oblivion or lack of consciousness to the environment or simply as a result of oblivion that they are part of us. The term “environmental issues” usually implies one of two interpretations: 1) Wind, waves, tides, sediment characteristics and/or other environmental factors involved in Channel design and usage, 2) Environmental protection in the sense of reducing the negative impact on water quality or aquatic and coastal habitat quality. In the first sense of the term, all concern need to agree that methods for predicting and reporting environmental conditions have greatly improved and this should be able to give us direction as long as we are ready to connect the dots. This paper will address and give insight into the following questions in regard to burning flame of environment and impact to ship design: What is the current situation? ?What is the desired situation? Why is there a difference between the current and the desired situation? What are the impediments to change? How can these impediments be most effectively addressed?
In shipping and associated industries, ship protection and marine pollution are respectively interlink in term of safety and environment, conventionally ship safety is being deal with as its occurrence result to environmental problem. Ship Pollution seem to be very small, especially considering emission, but today culmination of oversight regarding emission seem to be back – firing against us from ozone layer depletion to the incessant flooding and more seem to be on the way if we don’t question or caution ourselves, again, shipping is not left behind in this, in fact, it seem to be the most to get hit by next big environmental revolt. Pollutions is about accident and accident it, about because, the later is the cause of the former. Sequel with this, this paper will address environmental impacts to ship design with respect to human, safety, ship reliability, channel, and maneuverability factors and everything that surround us and ship. And of course ship design consideration that needs to be incorporated in the ship design and the design process regarding these enumerated factors.
In respect to the above, current situation, will be examined, policy, demand, mitigation and way to move forward will be addressed. Emphasize on importance of simulation, risk assessment of restricted channel and new generation or class of larger ships that coming to market including the need to introduce maritime environment awareness in maritime curriculum by laying emphasize to simulation of real and fictitious ships. Need to incorporate as much of cybernetic technology in navigational and maritime operations and finally actionable navigation, marine environment mitigation measure, recommendation for improving the safety of navigation and protection of the marine environment by enhancing cost effective state of art sustainable of ship that has great controllability in extreme whether and restricted water areas.
Likewise, for many years, less attention has been given to ship life cycle, material properties, and frequency matching with the environment has resulted to corrosion. Also ship scraping, and what happen to the environment after ship scraping, yes a lot of recycling, but little or no attention is given to the residual material that find their ways to pollute the clean beautiful sea. Other areas of concern are channel design criteria ships, controllability in dredged channels, and ?ship maneuverability as a consideration in the Design Process. All in all, preventive and control incorporating sensible measures in ship design can only optimize method and give us confidence on our environment. Focal areas that are will need revolutionary changes in ship design that will be identified in this paper are:
Material selection to withstand structural, weight, economical lifecycle anticorrosion and fouling
Incorporating ship simulation at early stage of ship design
Structural scantly to withstand structural function, reliability, integrity, weight, economical lifecycle
Incorporation maneuvering ship simulation at early stage of design iteration
Incorporate new close loop environmental disposal technology system to make new ships environmental safe.
3.0 Environmental issue – a blessing in disguise
The million dollar answer is that whether we start in order to make clean ships, the optimal choice we have is to design shipboard pollution control system that will allow us to treat or process all ship waste on board or allow us to incorporate or integrating such system in existing ship. Most especially, incorporating such system in earlier ship design process through forming basic concept to set aside enough space on board and make the most of the overall design of scalable and efficient .Yes, we need to design system that will allow us to destroyed waste on board the ship and those that not be destroyed will be treated so that discharge. Due to advert environmental causality and impact of recent days, sensitivity has caused serious policy and more will follow, already we have deadline for some. If we don’t do this now, what we will see are similitude of : Inconvenience of discharge regulation;More MARPOL special discharge areas ;Augmentation of Confusion caused by waste signature – advert of floating of debris
Now, considering the beneficent part of this contemporary issue, environmentally sound ship- self-contained and independent of shore facilities for shipboard waste management will end up reducing logistic requirement and costs.Time has already seen how ineconomy and inconvenience it is for ships pumping liquid waste to pier side reception facilities, offload solid waste and excess hazardous material for disposal – vessel are astronomically being charge substantial costs by private contractors to disposed these generated wastes, beside this, who don’t like good names, good names is attached to being responsible, and be among the clean ship in port state control report to IMO. With this, green ship will nonetheless give the following beneficial business advantages to clean ships:
They will be significant ship of tomorrow; they will be the ship with good pride and public image that will provide leadership definition to shipping companies of tomorrow.
They will be safer, environmental friendly, everything around them including marine recourses will be safe
They will maintain good relationship with legislation and environmental agencies hence minimizes the risk of fines and litigation.
Helps control operational pollution, minimizing the risk of an environmental incident.
Enables companies to demonstrate a proactive approach to environmental protection.
Helps companies to gain recognition of investment in pollution control technology.
Improves operational efficiency will Provides confidence that environmental risk is being managed effectively. High levels of environmental performance can create competitive advantage
Today, environmentally conscious world there is already so mush pressure on ship-owners to minimize the impact of their operations on the environment. And again more are coming, luckily we are in an age of Innovation and development in this information and technological age has involved activities in relation to speed, safety, reliability, miniaturization, cost, mobility and networking in most industries this is the poweress of human civilization, we have the technology it is matte of exercising more creativity witting our limited time to manipulate our system to in order o come up with sustainable system.
4.0 Why environmental issue become a hot issue
Over the last decade, each passing years has been augmented concerned about issue of environment importance in design, construction, operation and beneficial disposal of marine articraft .the overriding force is increasing the resources of the planet that we live and that only a few are renewable. This accumulated to production that has elements of long-term sustainability of the earth. Precipitated effect over the year has call for public awareness and translated into impact through these two main manners:
Commercial forces: where company that or product that operate in unenvironmental friendly way, people are prone to spurn the companies products and service, there fore having impact on company return on investment.
Regulations: public pressure on governmental and non-governmental organization regulation due to untold stories of disaster and impact, the public is very concerned and in need of fact that if the quality of life of people enjoy is to be sustained, for them and the future generation then the environment must be protected. conspicuous issue, expertise and finding of regulations make them to go extra length on unseen issue, contrasting between the two, while commercial force act on hat will be forth problems.
Ship Concept design is very important in shipping and it account for 80 percent of failure, therefore compliance and making of optimal design has a great impact in ship whole life cycle. The impact of environment in ship design is very difficult because of large numbers of uncertainties. Environmental impact hat need to be taken into considerations in concept design can be classified into the following:
Construction -Energy and pollution – these come into picture when multidirectional thinking give wisdom on what happen during transportation, mining, rolling of material that will be used.
Operations: considering limiting life cycle of ships at estimate of 20 years, issues relating to the following are equally not easy to quantify in design work, even thus a lot of research effort has been set on move on this, but the call of the day require allowable clearance and solution to be given to the following: Known emission, Accidental, Ballast waste, Coating.
Disposal: issue of disposal that cover waste and emission and as well as what to do with the ship at the end of her life cycle.
5.0 Major impact areas
Environmental protection shall be considered a design constraint when evaluating cost, schedule, and performance of systems under development and for product improvement of those that have been deployed. The cognizant engineer shall consider the environmental impact of proposed actions, and a mitigation plan developed where required to supports unrestricted operations by developing, producing, installing, and managing all shipboard equipment, systems, and procedures to reduce and manage shipboard wastes in compliance with existing and anticipated environmental restrictions worldwide without jeopardizing ship mission, survivability, or habitability.
5.1 Sequel to the above we can deduce that these major effects from ships environmental impacts are:
· Intentional and unintentional discharge (oil, garbage, antifouling paint, air emission, on indigenous species from ballast water
· Environmental damage and pollution due to port activities
· Disturbance of marine environmental (collision and noise)
Emission from scraping of ships at the end of their life cycle
Risk associated with environmental issue n ship and in ship designing is:
1. Accidental risk – marine accident that could result to oil spills which then, end up degrading our environment GESAMP reported that 400-300 thousands of oil entered the world ocean (GEASMP, 1993), collision with marine mammal, which then cause propeller injuries
2. Operational risks-socio economic impacts to marine ecology, habitat, and coastal infrastructures are affected though operational activities that result to oil spill, emission, ballast water, garbage, contamination, antifouling and dredging activities.
In addition to this according to RINA Publication, the table shows typical 100 years ITH standards measurements of global warming potential for a substance are shown in table1
Fig. 1 – Global worming potential (GWP) of various compound- source
5.2 Impact -vessel, channel and maneuverability- in the context of ship design the impacts areas are: Shipping Trends, Channel Design Criteria, Ship Maneuverability, Ship Controllability, and Use of Simulators in Channel Studies. Since world II many nations built port but forget about maintaining them while shipyard continues to build larger ships. Physical dimension and ratio of ships to channel has got impact in today’s ship controllability design are:
Ships’ increase ship beam expansion where as channel width is not, Length/beam (L/B) ratio
2. Radius of turns and turning areas-Radius of turns is directly related to navigation safety and protection of the marine environment, large rudder angles are needed to navigate small radius turns Rudder size;
3. Power/tonnage ratio;
4. Minimum bare steerage speed; and Windage
6. International maritime organization
6.1 Policies and procedures build-up –Pollution/ Emission prevention and control
International convention for the prevention of pollution from ships (MARPOL) 1973, It covers accidental and operational oil pollution as well as pollution by chemicals, goods in packaged form, sewage, garbage and air pollution I was modified by the protocol on of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78), MARPOL cover:
o Annex I- oil
o Annex II-noxious liquid chemicals
o Annex III- Harmful Goods (package)
o Annex III-sewage
o Annex IV- emission and air pollution (Sox, Nox and green house gas, emission of ozone depletion gas (ODG))
New coming annex to MARPOL –Talk is going on passing new annex that will cover:
· Control and management of ballast water to minimize transfer of harmful foreign species
· Global prohibition of TBT in antifouling coating 0- phase out scheduled for 2008
Marine environmental protection committee (MEPC) – IMO technical committee forming subcommittee on specific issue to implement regulation towards necessary mitigation
International convention on oil pollution, Response and cooperation (OPRC)- 1990 – policy to combating major incidents or threats of marine pollution through port state control to prevent mitigates or eliminates danger to its coastline from a maritime casualty. Annex protocol under this convention (HNS Protocol) covers marine pollution by hazardous and noxious substances.
Classification societies- Classification society are aggressively building service on Environment Protection notation, and various performance indicator to get all concern committed to running an environmentally sound ships.
Lloyds- Lloyds through risk assessment holistic method has defined the following effects as clean ship the benchmark standard. As Lloyd put it “These will help you gain recognition for your additional investment in specific aspects of pollution control. Using the Rules as a framework our surveyors and environmental specialists can work with you to tailor environmental protection solutions to your specific needs”
Dnv -DnV has equally lunched EMBLA database integrated project hat will manage discharge of ballast water.
European Union – Recently the union has embarked on multinational project call MARTOB ballast water
Montreal Protocol -Some 110 governments attended the (9th Meeting of the Parties) of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, September 1997 where several important decisions were reached, including the tightening of restrictions on several destructive chemicals.
6.2 Policies and procedures build-up – collision preventions and control -Although ships may spend 90 – 98 percent of their operational lives underway at sea speed in deep water, it is during the mandatory beginning and end of every voyage when the risk of collisions, and groundings are highest. Ensuring the ability to maintain complete and positive control of a ship’s movement during these segments of a voyage is absolutely vital if that risk of navigation safety and protection of the marine environment is to be reduced. According to INTERTANKO’s 1996 Port and putting bigger and bigger ships (and more of them) into the same old channel:
· The design limit for trim by the stern for a tanker is 0.015L in accordance with Regulation 13 of MARPOL 73/78, Annex I. This information, which is based on tests conducted in deepwater, includes a turning circle diagram as well as tables showing time and distance to stop the vessel from full and half-speed.
· IMO Resolution A601 (15), which was adopted in 1987, contains recommendations for ensuring maneuvering information is available on board ship.
· The 1995 Seafarers’ Training, Certification and Watch keeping Code, Section A-VIII/2 part 3-1, and article 49 require the master and pilot to “exchange information regarding navigation procedures, local conditions and the ship’s characteristics.”
· A Marine Board study assessed the use of numerical simulation technology to train mariners and concluded that while modeling accuracy is sufficient for deep-water operations; modeling requires refinement to provide the accuracy needed for shallow and restricted water operations.
6.3 Ship design policy build-up -In 1971, IMO adopted Resolution A.209 (VII) establishing recommendations regarding posting maneuvering 9 Regulation II-1/29.3.2 of SOLAS requires rudder movement from 35 degree on either side to 30o on the other to occur in 28 seconds or less.
IMO approved circular MSC/Circ.389 in 1985 establish interim guidelines for estimating the maneuverability -Rudder size and effectiveness, Ability to transit at slow forward speed, Propulsion and propeller characteristics, Number of available engine reversals, Adequate horsepower for control, Extra reserve rudder angle needed to allow for ship crabbing from wind forces or moored ship suction, Visibility from bridge and bridge arrangement, Hull form squat (trim and sink age) characteristics and effect of bank forces on moorings and passing ships, Air draft, Emergency anchoring ability, Amount of tow line leads and line access.
7.0 Current Ship design practice
Existing design tools cannot, at least with any degree of reliability, be used to design a vessel and ensure it will ensure environmental reliability and adequate maneuverability in shallow or restricted waters neither can it be use to satisfy demand need by clean ships . In part this is because of the extreme on-linearity of hull and propulsion characteristics under these conditions. In general, naval architects and marine engineers are educated and equipped with knowledge, skills, and design processes that permit continuous checking and balancing of constraints and design tradeoffs of vessel capabilities as the design progresses.
The intended result of the process is the best design given the basic requirements of speed, payload, and endurance nor where the waste is going. Focus is not placed on how the channels and waterways are designed. Perhaps even more importantly, there is a general lack of understanding of the operational scenario regarding piloting of vessels in constrained waterways. Only recently has there been a real attempt to fully integrate human operational practices with vessel design. The involvement of human beings onboard vessels both extends and restricts the inherent vessel maneuvering capabilities vastly complicating the necessary methodology for assuring safe and efficient operations. Taking waste issue and restricted waterway maneuverability as an important part of ship design spiral would seem a necessary step to enabling proper tradeoffs in vessel design. The reality is that maneuverability and pollution protection is still not an important consideration in ship design of many merchant ships. The result is that design decisions that can compromise environment and collision are decided in favor of other factors. Only with consideration of the full range of ship and channel design and human factors relationships affecting maneuverability will we be able to produce an efficient and safe environmental friendly marine transportation system. Now that the new issue of environment is around, then we have to squeeze in more stuff in the spiral.
Table 1 – parameters s demand and impact
Need for longer safe life cycle
New limit definition, Correct material selection, Material technology, Quality control of safety and environment
High worker safety standards, Low energy input
Improved hull hydrodynamic,
Minimum pollution and emission, Minimum Sox, Nox and green house gas-Zero discharge
Advance Close loop process on board,Waste recycling equipment, Improve training
Zero harmful emission
Maximum fuel efficiency
Engine design, use of alternative energy
Biocide free technology
Zero biological invasion or transfer of alien species
Segregated ballast tanks, Improved ballast water tank design, Ballast water treatment, Ballast water data base
Safer ship structure design, Improve maneuvering capability, Navigation AID, misinformation, Exchange, Reeducation
Able officer, Ship structure, Integrity
New monitoring through port sate control
Halon phase out
Wave wash of High speed
Zero inundation and spray ashore
Moderation of hydrodynamic force
8.1 Shipboard and waste emission outline –treatment and elimination – Pollution Prevention (P2) or Pollution Control-this is backbone of the thrust in achieving clean ship. Pollution Prevention Use fewer environmentally harmful substances and generate less waste on board. Pollution Control: Increase treatment, processing, or destruction of wastes on board.
The basic P2 principles follow:
Eliminating the use of environmentally harmful chemicals, such as ozone-depleting substance (ODSs), toxic antifoulant hull coatings, and other hazardous materials, may be the best approach for some potential problems.
Fig.2-Treatment and emission
Reducing the amount of waste we generate on board is often better that treating it on board: for example, reducing the amount of plastics and other packaging materials taken aboard may simplify solid and plastics-waste management? Similarly, reducing the volume of liquid wastes generated (such as graywater) may simplify onboard liquid-waste treatment.
1. For the wastes and hazardous materials that cannot be prevented, we must develop pollution-control strategies and technologies.
Other technical mitigation measures are:
Toxic approach uses other metals such copper and zinc, or agrochemicals e.g. triazines
Fouling release approach use physical properties of low surface energy coating cause the very weak attachment of fouling organisms. E.g. silicone based coating
Fouling deterrence –marine organism not know for fouling like corals are use
Mobile hull cleaning is also being use operationally
Ballast water discharge
On board treatment – chemical (chlorination), physical treatment (Ultra violet light, heat treatment), filtration and cyclonic separation, shore base treatment is sometime being used but not common.
Operational mitigation based on information of biological difference between coastal ocean water where ballast and ballasting is done accordingly.
Sulfur reduction in bunker fuel
Nitrogen reduction to choice of propulsion system
On board Cataleptics system like charlatanic converter, water injection, emulsion
Operationally sped reduction and use of shore power connection has been implemented
8.2 Ship collision control and prevention outlines- Most accident are attributed to a flagrant controllability problem and the remain the classic impetus necessary to make improvements to safety and environmental protection, and we e need to do more to ensure adequate vessel maneuverability perhaps better matching of vessel, channel, and operational practices.
Ship maneuverability as major iterative element of design spiral-ship maneuverability is not considered particularly important during the design process, because Owners generally do not include maneuverability requirements as part of the design specification; Firm deep- and shallow/restricted-water maneuvering standards that can be applied during the design process should be established.
Modeling and simulation -Collection of data using dual frequency DGPS receivers and proper analysis needs to be supported to enable unlocking our understanding of restricted water operations.
9.0 Environmental technology
9.1 Recent development coalition control work -Environmental technology also become hot as issue of environment start burning, this might be a start of another evolution, as environmental technology product will start selling good.
9.1 Recent environmental performance
1 Ozone safe substances- 200-Ton Air-Conditioning Plant Conversion Kit -The CG-47and DDG-51 plants have been successfully converted to the ozone-friendly refrigerant HFC-236fa conversion kit has been established by NSWCCD.
Solid waste – Solid-Waste Pulpers -The pulper (especially the large pulper) is the machine into which you dump tremendous quantities of paper, cardboard, or food waste. The waste mixes with seawater to form slurry, which is then discharged overboard. Studies show an immediate 100,000-to-1 dilution when discharged into the wake of a ship. Ships equipped with a pulper can dispose of their paper, cardboard, and food waste just about anywhere and at anytime—at sea including MARPOL areas.
Liquid waste – OWS and Bilge water Polishers: Many bilge cleaners the Navy uses today contain long-lasting emulsifying agents, which produce stable oil-in-water emulsions that shipboard OWSs cannot effectively process.
Shipboard Wastes and Emissions
To improve the reliability of sanitary waste system sewage transfer-pump suction and discharge gauges, naval research laboratory the ring-gauge isolator is adopting, Thermal Destruction and integrated liquid discharge system, the later is a concept where ultra filtration membrane systems would concentrate bilgewater, graywater, and sewage (as previously described); the clean effluents would be discharged; and the concentrates would be evaporated/incinerated in a thermal-destruction system.
Fig. 2 – integrated liquid discharge system concept- source – NRL
9.2 Recent development coalition control work – A number of promising developments that exist today are:
1. Kutsuro Kijima showed a modeling approach that permitted analysis of passing situations that would help set procedural standards for safe passing.
2. IanDand reported on the development of models for ships squat that have shown very good accuracy over the years.
3. Larry Daggett described the advent of dual frequency DGPS receivers and their role in gathering full-scale ship trial data. In addition to the excellent horizontal accuracy of the normal DGPS receiver, these receivers provide vertical location with an accuracy measured in centimeters.
10.0 The future
There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain of success than to take a lead in the introduction of a new order of things because the innovation has for enemies all those have done well under the old conditions and lukewarm defenders in those who may do well under new.
Machiavelli, the prince
Recent Safety and Environmental Strategic focus on developing metrics to measure and evaluate progress. The key issues and actions are incorporated in the clean ship concept. Ships owner and operators must understand the need to include wastes stream management in mission requirement in the design stages, with the goal of ships being in compliance. Ship designer must pursue technologies to reduce or eliminate waste streams. The metrics use to monitor progress towards achieving environmentally sound ships will focus on shipboard pollution control equipment installations, specifically the planned versus actual installations. Each waste stream or environmental pollutant, equipment installations, the percentage of total installations completed versus the planned percentage, will be used as a measure of progress for that waste stream. For waste streams and contaminants for which no equipment has been approved or anticipated, the metric will born many R&D for necessary findings . We must take a lead in effectively integrating pollution prevention and safety into the design and life cycle of our ships, systems, ordnance into the execution of our processes, and into the operation. Managing the whole process is another thing; environmental management can be optimizing by incorporating the following concept in our system:
Goal based , risk based and holistic design approach
Total cost minimization concept,
Innovative safety and environmental strategy management and integration,
Planning for uncertainty and risk, R(P1c) = R(E1) x W(E1,P1) + R(E2) x W(E2,P1) + R(E4) x W(E4,P1)
Where: R= rating, E= environmental factor, P= Policy factor
Probabilistic and stochastic validation
Education and training
11.0 Conclusion - Working better by working together
Amazingly, it seem that everything is need to be integrated in order for the world to function, this sounds ironical, even thus the environment has naturally integrated everything, the same apply to maritime on issue of safety and marine environmental impact control and protection, it is important to for the main players in design (pilots, regulators, channel designers, simulator experts and ship operators),and all concerned to share experience Regarding differences in rules and among regulators, about rules that are taken too light , sensitivity of area, degrees of hazard for various ship types ,Naval architects and ship handlers alike should take the importance of importance green house and green ship issue and (and difficulty) of the passing maneuver unrestricted waters .
Environmental issue has become so sensitive because it is more or less of evidence that nature has exercise enough patience, impact has reach flash point and those who are knowledgeable about the behavior of matter and environment could sense potential of contagious chain of reaction that can lead to heavy calamity destruction and lost. Treating the issue equally required hybridizations of all the methodology we have been using- objectives and subjective, reactive and proactive, and of course newly holistic institutionalized method that compare and consider trend analysis of every elements of what we are dealing with.
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4) GESAMP (1993) Impact of oil and related chemicals and wastes on marine environment, GEAMP reports and studies No50 joint group of expert of marine pollution. Available at: http://www.gesamp.imo.org/no65/
5) IMO (2000) marine environmental protection committee 44th session available at: http: www.imo.org/meeting/44.html
6) IMO (1998a) MARPOL Focus on IMOTags: burning flame, human civilization, marine pollution, oladokun sulaiman, wind waves