Posts Tagged effects of global warming
Sustainable school building projects are educational structures built for children with limited educational facilities or none at all. Often, school buildings are built with the help of donors and sponsors. This list of sponsors can include a corporation, a government agency, non-government organizations and a team of designers and suppliers. Below are two notable school building projects in place all over the world.
Microsoft’s School of the Future-In 2003, the school district of Philadelphia enlisted the help of Microsoft to build a ‘School of the Future’ for 750 students in grades 9-12. The ‘School of the Future’ is meant to serve as a model of learning in the 21st century by the practice and promote digital inclusion; Integrate technology into every area of the learning community, including curriculum delivery, community collaboration, office support, content creation, and sharing content and assessments; generate innovative education practices and new models for learning; and create an environment that engages all learning community members and helps to inspire passionate, personal responsibility for learning.
Hana Elementary and High School-The Hana Elementary and High School, located in Maui, Hawaii is the first American school building made of sustainable bamboo. The building was constructed by Bamboo Living, the global leader in sustainable bamboo living. The 1,200 square foot building will be used to teach industrial arts to high school students, including how to make use of sustainable materials such as bamboo. The bamboo used for the school building is said to feature twice the compression strength of concrete and a greater strength-to-weight ratio than steel. It was also said that Bamboo’s environmental benefits include the ability to produce greater biomass and 30% more oxygen than a hardwood forest on the same area. The use of bamboo and other sustainable building materials aims to reverse the effects of global warming and raise communities out of poverty through crop propagation skills.
Promotional efforts and campaigns for projects such as these are quite limited as they rely on donations and sponsorship. An affordable but effective alternative to large campaigns is the use of small print materials like flyers, bookmarks, stickers, tags and postcards. These materials can be directly mailed and can communicate the message instantly. Online printing companies like Uprinting for example, provide small business owners in rural communities and low-income areas lending opportunities through Kiva.com Uprinting provides funding to start small marketing campaigns of small business and non-profit organizations.Tags: collaboration office, curriculum delivery, digital inclusion, effects of global warming, sustainable building materials
Increased moral, ethical, social and political concerns about changes in the environment due to the effects of global warming have resulted in the development of increased interest in environmental education and awareness of children (Littledyke, 2002) hence, there have been many researches carried out into children’s understanding of their environment and related issues. This paper seeks to explore the extent to which children could play an important role in environmental issues. It is reasonable to suggest that catching them young is an effective way of creating environmental awareness and this may result in eco-soldiers in their later lives. It could be argued that this generation, more than any other before, will need the environmental awareness and citizenship that is instilled through the interaction and exploration of their natural environment through education.
Children represent an influential market that directs parental expenditure and the argument for their importance in decision making in all spheres of life is becoming more persuasive and more widely accepted (Strong, 1998). Strong (1998) further suggests that children are able to use information from school to choose environmentally friendly products and play a role in how their parents act. In this regard, schools play an important role in the formation of positive attitudes towards the environment in young people. It is, therefore, reasonable to suggest that lack of awareness is one of the obstacles to development. Arguably, a child who does not know what things are harmful to the environment is unlikely to respect the environment and may not, therefore, have good environmental attitudes.
The Health Protection Agency (HPA, 2009) has noted that about a quarter of the UK population are young people below 19 years of age. Children and young people, the HPA (2009) suggests, can be especially vulnerable to environmental determinants of disease and exposure to environmental hazards than adults. By the UK government putting in place strategies that focus on environmental factors that impact on young people’s health (HPA, 2009), there have been substantial improvements in the quality of the environment in the UK that have resulted in measurable improvements in children’s health. However, the HPA (2009) acknowledges that despite these advances, there are areas such as environmental awareness that can still be improved. It can be suggested that as the understanding of the connection between environmental awareness and children’s health advances, areas that need further improvements could be identified and acted upon.
The UK government has also set out policies and enacted laws such as the Climate Change Act 2008 (Defra, 2008) as a measure it can use to cut the UK’s emission of greenhouse gases. Defra (2008) suggests that the government recognises the importance of schools and young people in meeting its carbon reduction commitment. It could, nevertheless, be debated that although there are such laws and acts to protect the environment, if the children are not aware of them and the benefits of a good environment, then their role will be very minimal. Furthermore, research carried out by the Green Alliance (2004) revealed that children are losing their connection with the natural environment; and that the worse a local environment looks the less the children are able to play freely. The research further suggests that children from poor environments are unlikely to develop habits and commitments that will enable them to address environmental problems adequately in the future. The Green Alliance (2004) argues that new ways need to be found that facilitate environmental education for children through out-of-school learning and green school designs.
As Green Alliance (2004) has pointed out, children are a powerful symbol of the future and hence they provide us with a compelling reason to protect the environment. With their involvement in the implementation of environmental policies as well as a prolonged and repeated interaction with the natural environment, it could be debated that children would be conditioned to develop a sense of care for the environment. It can therefore be suggested that new ways need to be found that facilitate environmental education through out-of-school learning and green school designs. The inclusion of Environmental Studies in school curriculums could result in teachers having the confidence to deliver out-of-classroom teaching which could lead to better environmental awareness and attitudes in children (Defra, 2007). Every child should be entitled to outdoor learning, such as field trips, if they are to be connected to their natural environment (Green Alliance, 2004). It could be debated that the opportunity to investigate and explore the natural environment provides children with the knowledge and understanding of how they could use their surroundings. It is reasonable to suggest that such knowledge may result in their appreciation of what they have and develop good attitudes towards the environment.
The importance of children in environmental issues has been acknowledged by the International Standards Organisation (ISO, 2003) by developing a ‘Kids’ ISO 14000 programme. ISO (2003) describes that the ‘Kids’ ISO 14000 aims to promote environmental awareness among children worldwide and enable them to take practical steps to improve the environment. It teaches them to implement environmental management based on the ISO 14000 approach in their homes and communities and also aims to encourage the formation of networks of children both locally and internationally in order for them to work together on global environmental issues. ISO (2003) contends that the Kids’ ISO 14000 is a powerful learning tool which helps children to achieve measurable environmental results on their own doorsteps and forms responsible, environmentally mature citizens with a global outlook.
It is reasonable to suggest that the Kids’ ISO 14000 has become even more relevant as communication technology has become more accessible to children than never before in the history of mankind. A comprehensive report by the London School of Economics on internet usage by young people in the 9-19 year old age range in the UK (Adam, 2009) indicates that 98% have access to the internet with 74% having access at home and 35% with access in their bedrooms. Adam (2009) highlights other researches by the charity Personal Finance Education Group (PFEG) and the media regulator ofcom which reveal that 75% of all UK children aged 7 years and older owned “at least” one mobile phone. With the internet providing social networking sites such as Facebook, Myspace and YouTube and mobile phones providing text and picture messaging facilities, communication among children has never been easier. It could be debated that this technology has provided a new opportunity for children’s participation in environmental matters. Technology has offered youths opportunities to form youth groups, play schemes and other forums for them to be able to contact other children around the world and encourage them to be aware of how their actions can affect their environment. Arguably, if one child can reduce their own impacts and influence their immediate families and communities then millions of children together can make an enormous difference.
Evidence gathered by Odell (2009) suggests that children who are ‘green’ are militant and see themselves as the eco-kids bent on re-educating their parents and develop confidence to carry the eco message home. Odell (2009) states that a survey carried out in 2008 by the UK Social Investment Forum showed 24% of parents cited their children as a key green motivator and concluded that children are more powerful in getting environmental ideas across than either politicians or the media. This idea has been backed by Defra (2007) who part-fund the Eco-schools programme. Defra (2007) states that: “Children are the key to changing society’s long-term attitudes to the environment”. This is supported by research finding at Durham University (Palmer and Suggate, 2004) which showed that children as young as 4 years of age are capable of making accurate statements about the effects of environmental changes on habitats and living things; and that in some instances they reminded adults to switch off the lights when not in use. Arguably, children from all ages are capable of showing concern for caring for their environment.
Studies by Barraza and Walford (2002) in Mexico and the UK found that levels of environmental understanding amongst children are higher in schools with strong orientation in environmental studies than schools with no environmental policies. This evidence is supported by findings of the Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability (IRES, 2008) at Newcastle University which suggests that environmental awareness and participation by children are more effective in schools where environmental policies are well developed and that children from such schools are more likely to apply their knowledge in the local environment within their neighbourhoods. Conversely, the same research revealed that children taught by teachers with inadequate understanding of environmental issues show little interest in their environment.
There are, however, some sceptics who object to the involvement of children in environmental matters (Odell, 2009). Among the objecting voices, Odell (2009) points out, are Frank Furedi, Professor of Sociology at the University of Kent and author of ‘The End of Education’ and Professor David Uzzell at Surrey University. Odell (2009) quotes Furedi as stating that it is not right to worry children with environmental matters at an early age as they may end up just acting like ‘super-virtuous eco-bots’ without really thinking about their actions. Uzzell on-the-other-hand claims to have conducted research on children as a catalyst of environmental change in the UK, Portugal, Denmark and France (Odell, 2009). The finding of this study, as Uzzell is cited by Odell (2009), was that the use of children as shock troops for environmental change does not work and that “children coming home and proselytizing is not the answer.” Uzzell concludes that (Odell, 2009) it only works in a household which has a well-informed middle-class family where the parents were willing to play pupil and allow the child to play teacher.
It could however be contended that removing children from the environmental equation would be unwise and counterproductive since many environmental problems, such as climate change, have an impact even on future generations that do not participate in present decisions. It could be debated that the challenge should rather be to ensure that children’s involvement in decision-making on their environment is meaningful and can be translated into real and consistent consideration of their needs. Catling (2005) points out that children do not escape the vagaries, the benefits and the issues of the world at large, and that schools and communities in general have the responsibility to engage with them about it. Catling (2005) contends that schools should have high expectations of children and make them to be knowledgeable about their locality and the world at large. The Green Alliance (2004) has pointed out that children are a powerful symbol of the future and should not only play a passive role in the development and implementation of environmental policy. Arguably, encouraging them to participate in the environmental debate and decision-making could have a wider impact on environmental awareness and citizenship in the longer term. On behalf of the UK Government (Defra, 2007), the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) aims to ensure that sustainable development and environmental awareness is embedded in the core education agenda across all education and skills sectors.
It could be concluded from the above studies that the saying ‘think global, act local’ is even more valid when thinking about children’s environmental awareness. The global environmental issues, it could be debated, will continue to get more complex and the generation we are currently fostering is likely to face even tougher environmental challenges. As the Green Alliance (2004) puts it:
“This generation more than any other before will need the environmental
awareness and citizenship that is instilled through exploration of the natural
environment in childhood.”
In addition, policy makers, it could be suggested, would benefit greatly from listening more to children’s views on environmental issues and respecting their opinions and perspectives as well as taking them as key players on global environmental issues. Whichever approach is taken, it should be clear that the environmental problems being faced by humankind are real, and that if they are to be tackled, and negative trends reversed, immediate and positive action is necessary (Curran, 1998). Curran (1998) contends that every individual and organisation, large or small, can make a contribution and that every contribution is important. It is therefore reasonable to suggest that an increase in children’s awareness of both the environmental issues and the responses that can be made to them is of paramount importance now and in the future.
Adams, S. (2009). Children get first mobile phones at average age eight. Available from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/children.html (22/12/2009).
Barraza, L., and Walford, R.A. (2002). Environmental Education: a comparison between English and Mexican School Children. Journal of Environmental Education Research, Volume 8(2), pp 171-186.
Catling, S. (2005). Children, Place and Environment. GA Annual Conference- University of Derby.
Colton, M et al. (2001). An Introduction to Working with children: A guide for Social Workers. New York: Palgrave, pp 20-45.
Curran, S. (1998). The Environmental handbook. London: The Stationary Office; pp1-10.
Defra. (2007). Advice and Support on education. Available from: http://www.defra.gov.uk/sustainable/government/advice/education.htm (06/09/2009).
Defra,. (2009). Climate change: What we are doing in the UK. Available from: defra.gov.uk/climatechange/government/information.htm.
Green Alliance. (2004). A Green Alliance/Demos report on UK children’s attitudes towards their environment and how this affects them. Available from: green-alliance.org.uk.(12/08/09).
Health Protection Agency. (2009). A Children’s Environment and Health Strategy for the UK. Available from: http: //www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAweb/HPAweb_A/1237889522947 (23/08/2009)
IRES. (2008). Energy and Environment at Heart of Science City Programme. Newcastle University, Institute of Research on Environment and Sustainability. Available from: http://www.rtcc.org/208/html/res-education 2.html (06/05/2009).
ISO. (2003). ‘Kids’ ISO 14000 Programme. Available from: http://www.iso.org/iso/pressrelease.htm (08/05/2009).
Littledyke, M. (2002). Primary children’s views on science and environmental cognitive and moral development. Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, University of Lisbon. Available from: leads.ac.uk/educol/document.htm
Odell, M. (2009). Creating environmental awareness among children. The Observer. Available from: http://www.popline.org/does/082591.html (08/05/2009).
Oldfield, F. (2005). Environmental Change Key Issues and Alternative Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp281.
Palmer, J.A. and Suggate, J. (2004). The development of children’s understanding of distant places and environmental issues: report of UK longitudinal study of the development of ideas between the ages of 4 and 10 years. Research Papers in Education, Volume 19(2), pp 205-237.
Strasburger, V. C. (2006). Children, Adolescents, and Advertising. Journal of the American Academy of Paediatrics, Vol.118 (6), pp 2563-2569.
Strong, C. (1998). The impact of environmental education on children’s knowledge and awareness of environmental concerns. Journal of Marketing Intelligence and planning. Volume 16(6), pp 349-355.
Tags: effects of global warming, environmental attitudes, environmental determinants, health protection agency, positive attitudes
Green or perhaps sustainable architecture uses every resources available in the geographic region like orientation, energy, water, materials, and land for the more efficient energy consumption and for the most fun of the property.
The orientation will definitely have a remarkable effect on energy intake. Wintertime winds blow North to West, so setting up large windows in surfaces facing south will get enough sun and light all year round, and smaller windows on those facing north since they’ll be in the shade all year. A rectangular house with an east-west direction and 20 degrees south would be the ideal solution.
Having solar photovoltaic and a wind generator will certainly be an huge asset and building with the perfect separating material will also help on energy intake.
Unluckily, green architecture is higher in building costs than architecture made to code, so the starting effect can’t be soaked up by a lot of but the investment is so quite worth it on the long run.
Though green architecture should have a green family to go with it. I have a several persons who own a green abode and leave all of the light on, even when they leave the house, hold the water running always and the sprinklers turn on at noon!
Not just has green architecture a positive effect on energy consumption however it is environmental friendly and if we were all to re-made all constructions with green architecture the effects of global warming would reduce.
Lately I saw a program featuring ‘green’ homes on television. One such home was so well constructed, it in fact had spare energy the proprietor could vend back to his local electric company. They did it with the help of definite building materials specifically made to retain energy, by planning the placement of windows for maximum utilization of the sun’s energy, by energy conservation and utilization of electric appliances and bulbs that use less electricity. They in addition had solar panels (the latest ones are considered to be lots more efficient). The final result was a home that used practically no electricity.
In that day when persons are building larger and bigger houses that require even more electrical power, if they might find a way to use several of the ‘green’ building products, it would certainly help to diminish the amount of energy being utilized unnecessarily and so decrease the damage to the surroundings. Admittedly, the focuses building materials cost a bit more at the beginning, but more than make up for the cost later. Perhaps the government will commence to give levy breaks to persons utilizing them.
If a building is built to be ‘green’ there are many things that could be done to reduce energy dependancy and costs.
1) The building should be made so that the major wall is facing south. It is even better with trees planted on that side of the building to provide shade in the summertime however sun in the winter, when they loose their leaves. What that does is permits the sun to do a good quantity of your warming for you in the winter and the trees to hold your building cool in the summer. You could in addition put windows along this wall for solar lighting.
2) The building might be bulit to take advantage of geothermal warming, that means it is made to use the heat made by the earth to heat the building. Basically an extensive hollow is drilled under the building and the energy of the earth cools the building in the summertime (as it is cooler underground than above) and heats the buildling in the winter. That saves funds on both heating and cooling systems.
3) A perfectly made green building should have abundance of windows placed in strategic places as to have the most light come through them as probable. This will help with lighting bills as well as the improve the overall quality of life within the building.
4) A green building must be equiped with low-flow toilets, sinks and showers (if applicable). These can cut water costs by a plenty every year (a low-flow, pressure assisted toilet has an operating cost of about 50 percent of an average toilet).
5) The most used space in the building should be placed along the south wall and the least utilized over the north. This is because of the heating and cooling the south wall will receive that was mentioned in #1.
6) A green roof is a fine idea for a green roof. A green roof has several benefits, a huge one being that is assists keep the buildling cooler in the summer days. It also is remarkable for the environment as it reduced the amount of storm water run-off.
7) A gray water system can greatly reduce water costs by gathering storm water to be utilized all the way through the building in the toilets and, if applicable, different taps that wouldn’t have water being taken from them for drinking.
There are MANY more things that might be done however I’m sure if they would be considered architectural so I will leave them out from that piece of text.Tags: effects of global warming, green architecture, solar photovoltaic, spare energy, sustainable architecture
With today’s technology there are quite a lot of ways when it comes to energy generation. But the most commonly used and oldest way is the energy conversion from fossil fuels. However, the impact of fossil fuels to our environment has not been taken seriously for the last decades thus it has created menacing effects to our environment. It was only after experiencing the effects of global warming did the whole world starts taking accord on the matter. And the call towards energy sustainability and environmental conservation is now a corollary measure that we should all carry out.
What many countries aspire nowadays is to improve the way we consume and generate energy to finally decrease our dependence on fossil fuels particularly on oil. The use of biofuels, researches on science including capturing of energy from yeast and genetically engineered bacteria, and conversion of wastes into green energy has been considered to fight global warming and other environmental problems.
Developing our renewable energy sources
Many oil importer countries including the Philippines have also finally shift their focus to the development of their renewable energy sources. The Philippine government has laid down regulatory and policy framework for the utilization of these renewable sources of energy. Exploration on wind, hydropower, geothermal, biomass, solar and ocean energy is being considered. Sen. Loren Legarda, who is also the founder of Luntiang Pilipinas (Greening of the Philippines) Foundation, and other government officials are pushing the use of renewable sources to further protect the Philippine environment. And aside from the programs on renewable energy, they are also campaigning on the improvement of energy efficiency and conservation and environmental conservation. Examples are the campaigns for National Efficiency and Conservation Program (NEECP), Philippine Clean Air Act and Philippine Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 (PESWMA).
While these are all possible solutions, however the perfect solution that takes along all these regulations is the joint venture agreement between local government units and Spectrum Blue Steel Corporation (SBSC) regarding the deployment of the biosphere gasification facility. The Biosphere Process™ or Biosphere Technology is the latest breakthrough on waste management and power generation.
The joint venture agreement was accepted under the local government code of 1991 (R.A. No. 7160) and the PESWMA of 2000 (R.A. No. 9003), where as local government units are authorized to institute solid waste disposal systems or environmental management systems, and to set up environmentally sound solid waste management facilities, and accord greater private sector participation in its solid waste management system. SBSC has now existing contracts with City of San Fernando Pampanga, Sta Rosa Laguna, Naga City, Tanjay City, Dumaguete City and Bayawan City.
Sustainability and environmental conservation through Biosphere Process™
The Biosphere Process™ is a form of gasification wherein it destroys wastes to generate green energy. It works under Zero Waste Philosophy wherein it recycles all feedstocks back into nature or the marketplace in a way that protects both public health and our environment. With this technology our campaign towards energy sustainability and environment conservation is really achievable. Aside from the fact that it eradicates problems brought by wastes, it is also the answer to the growing demand on energy worldwide. According to SBSC, a single Biosphere Plant can make electricity continually in 5 MW per hour increments and can recycle up to 720 tons of garbage and destroy up to 172 tons of non-recyclable garbage per day. No wonder the technology is widely used by many countries, such as Unites States, United Kingdom, Germany, Beirut, China, Taiwan, Brazil, Libya, Italy, Canada, West Africa, Singapore, China, Japan, Russia and Canada.Tags: effects of global warming, national efficiency, philippine clean air act, renewable energy sources, renewable sources of energy